There are three main types of concrete garage construction; poured in place, pre-cast, and steel bar joist system. In each case the amount of rehabilitation for each type depends upon exposure, water control, repetitive traffic pattern, ongoing maintenance, and quality of original construction. The top deck of all garages must be treated as any roof for water tightness, expansion and contraction, and at turning radiuses for long term durability. Garages in cold climates with de-icing salts or warm weather beach front exposure will require much earlier rehabilitation and on-going maintenance compared to other garages.
Water intrusion at poured in place concrete reinforcing steel and tendons, pre-cast embeds and fractured / spalled stems, as well as fractured concrete over corroded steel pan decks and corroded bar joists are the most common garage type locations requiring rehabilitation. Secondary areas for rehabilitation occur at expansion and control joints, beam to column connections, shear and moment fractures, joist bearing pads, haunch fractures / failures, post tension repair and shear connector failures. The third area is exposed reinforcing steel, wire and pre-stressed tendons, as well as spalls at drive lanes, delaminated and deteriorated drive deck concrete, improper drive deck support at ramps and shear walls, inadequate top deck drainage, failed joints, below grade water intrusion at walls, and bar joist seat failures.
Rehabilitation will require a complete garage survey by a registered professional engineer with noted detail locations, and specified means and methods to be performed by an experienced garage restoration / rehabilitation contractor, to include concrete / steel repairs, waterproof deck coatings, joint and connection repairs / waterproofing, use of external carbon fiber strengthening CFRP, replace bearing pads, internal and external protective garage coatings, and specialized structural repairs.
Some additional considerations for every application:
Each garage survey and repair type is unique and specialized for each type of garage.
All structural deficiencies noted by the engineer must be repaired right away, followed by descending group priorities thereafter.
Owners should annually budget for garage repairs, maintenance / rehabilitation. Proactive inspection and timely repairs severely reduces overall garage expenses.
Concrete is not watertight and must be protected at select locations after new construction and during any rehabilitation.
Using a team approach when selecting a structural engineer and well qualified restoration contractor is the most cost effective rehabilitation method